The raw materials for the titanium industry are TiO2-bearing minerals and higher-grade feedstocks beneficiated from the main TiO2-bearing mineral, ilmenite. Ilmenite is a relatively abundant mineral recovered from hard rock and sand deposits. The major commercially exploited hard rock deposits are in Canada, China, Norway and the Ukraine. The sand deposits, known as heavy mineral sands, are distributed globally, mostly in coastal regions of Australia, India, Kenya, Madagascar, Mozambique, South Africa, Tanzania and Vietnam. Other naturally occurring titanium minerals recovered from heavy mineral sands include leucoxene and rutile. Beneficiated titanium feedstocks produced from ilmenite include chloride slag, sulphate slag, upgraded slag (UGS) and synthetic rutile.There are two primary technologies used to manufacture TiO2pigment – the sulphate process and the chloride process. These processes require different quality TiO2-bearing mineral feedstocks that are described as either sulphate feedstock or chloride feedstock. The main raw materials for the sulphate process are sulphate ilmenite (48-54% TiO2) and sulphate slag (76-82% TiO2). The chloride process typically requires higher grade feedstocks including chloride ilmenite (58-64% TiO2), chloride slag (85-88% TiO2), synthetic rutile (90-92% TiO2), upgraded slag (95% TiO2) and rutile (94-97% TiO2).